JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD
III Year B.Tech. AE  I Sem L T/P/D C
4 // 4
(A52107) AERODYNAMICS  II
Aim:
The Student will learn about vaired pheonomena involving compressible flows.HE/She will learn to do elementry calculations using Normal Shock tables,Oblique shock charts,parndtlMeyer Funtion tables as a Preparation toward desgin of high speed aircrafts and high speed wind tunnels.
Tables and charts required to be Supplied to candidates for reference during examination:
 Tables:
 1.Isentropic Flow Properites, 2. Normal Shock Properites, 3. PrandtlMeyer Funtion and Math Angle, 4. One Dimensional Flow With Heat Addition, 5. One Dimensional Flow With Friction, 6. Properites of INternational Standrad atmosphere and Chart: 7. Oblique Shock Properites.
UNITI
Thermodynamics in Fluid Motion: Definition of compressibility of flow, measure, flow regimes.Review of theromodynamicsconcept of equilibrium, Thermodymic systems, Variables of state, The first law of thermodynamics, Reversible & irreversible processes, Perfect gases, internal energy and enthalpy, specific heats,Adiabatic reversible process, Relations for Thermally & Calorically perfect gas, First law applied to irreversible processes, The throttling process or Joule Thompson process (considered most inportant for application to fluid mechanics), Entropy and second law, Entropy change relations, isentropic
relations.
UNITII
One Dimensional Flows: One dimsensional approximation, continuity equation for 1D flows, Energy equation incorporation of kinetic energy in Joule Thomposn Process, Reservoir conditions, 1D momentum equation for inviscid flow, Bernoulli equation for compressible flow, Mach number, 1D area velocity relation, Convergent divergent Channel & throat, Relations between satgaation pressure/density and Mach number, Local reservoir and autual reservoir, Sonic variblies and reservoir varibles, Di9fferent forms of energy equation, Constant area duct as a special case of 1D flow,, Continuity and momeutum equations for constant area ducts, Experimental flow visualization of a bluff body in supersonic flow and picture of a normal Shock constant area ducts formed by streamlines entering and leaving perpendicular to the shock. Normal shock waves: basic equations, relations across a normal shock,calculation of normal shock wave properties, measurements of airspeed in subsonic and supersonic flows.Entory rise across normal shockand its relation to pressure rise,. Numerical exercises with normal shock tables.
UNITIII
Oblique Shock and Expansion Waves: Oblique shock relations,Supersonic flow over wedges withb attached shock,large wedge angle and shock detachment, Oblique shock charts: strong shock and weak shock boundary,pressure,density and entropy rise,Oblique shock of vanishing strength and mach wave,mach angle and mach line,supersonic compression by turning,smooth nearly isentropic turn,Numerical excercise with oblique shock charts,
Regular reflection from solid wall, pressure deflection diagram,phenemenlogical description of shock waveboundary layer interaction at the wall, intersection of shocks, Mach reflection and slip stream. Numerical exercises with shock reflectionand shock intersection, detached shock wave infront of bluff 2D body variation of its strength starting from normal shock, strong oblique shock,weak oblique shock to Mach waves,shock waves in front of a three dimensional body (phenomenological description only)
Supersonic expansion by turning, Prandtlmeyer function & expansion fan, Shock expansion theoryapplication to supersonic airfoils. Supersonic flows over a flat plate at an angle of attack, over a diamond airfoils at a angle of attack, determination of slip stream angle, wave drag and lift, Numerical exercises with PrandtlMeyer Function Tables. Numerical exercises determination shockexpansionslipstream configuration & force calculation on airfoils.
UNITIV
More One Dimensional Flows and Subsonic & Transonic Airfoils: Adibatic flows in strraight,variable area channelLaval nozzles, diffusers, Governing equations, areavelocity relation. mass flow rate, effect of stagnation conditions, back pressure. Choked flow, isentropic flow, ideally expanded, overexpanded, underexpanded flowsappearance of normal shock, Wave reflection from free boundary, Brief outline of operation of supersonic wind tunnels employing convergentdivergent nozzles.
Onedimensional piston motion in a constant area tubes, Jump start,propagation of shock wave in front and expansion wave behind, xt diagram, particle velocity,pressure density & temparature relations.
SUBSONIC FLOW: The velocity potential,pertubation potential,linearized governing equation in two dimension,The pressure coefficientPrandylGlauert compressibility correction, application to swept wings,critical mach no.., drag divergence mach no..,
TRANSONIC FLOW: The sound barrier.Buffeting,Supercritical airfoils,swept wings at transonicspeeds,2nd order equation for transonic flows,Wingbody combination, Whitcomb's Transonic area rule:application to transonic aircraft.
UNITV
Airfoil, Wing and Cone in supersonic Flow: Point mass in stationary air moving in subsonic speed & propagation of wave front, In supersonic case influence zone limited within Mach lines/waves/cones, Principle of limited upstream influence in supersonic flow.
Brief outline of the method of charaterstics Statement (without proof) of compatibility relations,application to supersonic nozzle design.
Linerized supersonic flowgoverning equations,boundary conditions. Pressure coefficient,application to supersonic airfoils LIft,drag,pitching moment.Wedge,flat plate,diamond and biconvex airfoils at small angle of attack.
Airloads over flat rectangular wings of finite span, Delta wing with supersonic leading edge and subsonic leading edge,
Cone at zero angle of attack with attached conical shock; Limited upstream influence in supersoniccomparison of finite cone and semiinfinite cone,Dimensional analysis and dimensional conical variable, Ordinary differential equation for conical flow, Mention of avalibility of computed solution,how to use the standard computed chart,Comparision of pressure rise of wedge and cone of equal semiangle.
Qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow, Newtonian flow model: windward surface and Lee surface , Lift and drag of flat plate wings at hypersonic speeds.
TEXT BOOKS
1. Liepmann, H. W., and Roshko, A., Elenents of Gas Dynamics, John Wiley, 1957.
2. Bertin, J.J., Aerodynamics for Engineers, fourth edn., Indian reprint, Pearson Education, 2004, ISBN: 8129704862.
3. Rathakrishanan E., Has Dynamics, Prentice Hall of india.
4. Anderson, J.D., Modern compressible Flow with Historical Perspective, third edn., McGrawHill, 2003, ISBN: 0071121617.
REFERENCES
1. McCormick, B.W., Aerodynamics, Aeronautics & Flight Mechanics, second edn., John wiley, 1995, ISBN: 0471575062.
2. Shapirol A.H., The Dynamics and Themodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, Vols. I and II, John Wiley, 1953.
3. Landau, L.D., & Lifshitz, E.M., Fuild Mechanics, 2nd edn., Course of Theoritical Physics, Vol. 6, Maxwell Macmillan International Edition, Pergamon, 1989, ISBN: 0029462347.
Outcome:
Students will be able to prepare the design of high speed aircrafts and high speed wind tunnels.

CreatedJun 06, 2015

UpdatedJun 06, 2015

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